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Venice  to  Xanadu: 
Marco  Polo’s  Silk  Road 


presented  in  cooperation  with  the  Silhroad  Foundation, 

Center  for  the  Pacific  Rim  of  the  University  of  San  Francisco  and  its  Ricci  Institute, 
The  Italian  Cultural  Institute,  and  the  Mechanics’  Institute  Library 

'Venice  to  Xanadu:  Marco  Polo’s  Silk  Road 


8:00  pm  (performance)  Uzkeki  Dance  LAUREL  VICTORIA  GRAY  (Silk  Road  Dance  Company, 

Washington,  D.C.) 

8:10  PM  (lecture)  Rediscovering  the  Silk  Road  The  "Silk  Road,"  so  named  only  in  the  nineteenth 
century,  was  a web  of  dozens  of  unpaved  routes  connecting  India  and  China  with  the  Mediterranean  and 
Europe.  Marco  Polo  traveled  across  one  vast  Mongol-ruled  territory.  Today  it  is  divided  into  thirteen 
countries  and  many  more  cultural  zones.  S.  FREDERICK  STARR  (The  Nitze  School  Central  Asian  Institute, 
lohns  Hopkins  University)  assesses  how  the  legacy  of  the  past  will  affect  its  prospects  for  the  future. 

9:00  PM  Intermission 

9: 1 5 PM  (performance)  Musical  Legacies  of  the  Silk  Road  (SEE  INSERT) 

9: 1 5 PM  Music  From  Marco  Polo’s  Venice  ROY  WHELDEN  (vielle),  PETER  MAUND  (percussion), 

CHERYL  ANN  FULTON  (medieval  harp) 

9:35  PM  Azerbaijani  Dance  LAUREL  VICTORIA  GRAY  (Silk  Road  Dance  Company) 

9:40  PM  Music  from  Medieval  China  and  Mongolia  WANG  HONG  and  ZHAO  YANG-OIN  (Melody 

of  China) 

10:00  PM  Throat  Singing  From  Tuva:  PAUL  PENA 


10:00  am  (lecture)  Mummies  to  Marco  Polo:  Perspectives  on  the  Silk  Road  DR.  ALBERT  E.  DIEN  (Stanford 
University)  surveys  the  territory  through  which  the  Silk  Road  passes,  where  influences  of  the  great  civilizations 
of  the  East  and  West — China,  India,  Rome  and  Byzantium — mixed  with  the  native  ways  of  life  to  produce  a 
hybrid,  eclectic  mix  of  religions,  cultures  and  artistic  traditions.  We  view  early  Bronze  Age  mummies,  the 
beginnings  of  the  Silk  Road,  the  emergence  of  oasis  kingdoms,  and  the  eventual  decline  and  isolation  of  that 
area  as  sea  trade  replaced  camel  caravans. 

11:10am  (lecture)  Marco  Polo  and  other  Early  Travelers  to  China  PROFESSOR  MORRIS  ROSSABI 
(Columbia  University):  The  thirteenth-century  Mongols  expedited  and  encouraged  trade  and  travel  between 
East  and  West,  permitting  Western  merchants,  craftsmen,  and  envoys,  for  the  first  time,  to  journey  to  China 
and  Mongolia.  Colorful  and  lively  accounts  include  the  writings  about  and  of  the  famous  Venetian  merchant 
Marco  Polo,  missionaries  john  of  Plano  Carpini  and  William  of  Rubruck,  and  craftsman  Guillaume  Boucher. 
Rabban  Sauma,  a "reverse  Marco  Polo,"  was  a missionary/diplomat  from  China  who  met  with  the  Pope  and 
the  Kings  of  England  and  France. 

Noon-1  :30  pm  Break  for  Lunch 

1:30  PM  (lecture/performance)  Costume  and  Dance  from  Central  Asia  LAUREL  VICTORIA  GRAY  (Silk 
Road  Dance  Company)  presents  sumptuous  costuming  and  spirited  dance  traditions  of  Silk  Road  cultures. 
Historically  accurate  Azerbaijani,  Kurdish,  and  Bukharan  costumes  include  authentic  embroidery  and 
weaving  Ms.  Gray  collected  on  her  travels  to  the  East  and  reflect  painstaking  efforts  to  preserve  traditional 
dress  in  the  face  of  rapid  change  due  to  exposure  to  the  West. 

2:35  PM  Break 

2:45  PM  (lecture)  The  Exchange  of  Princely  Gifts  Across  the  Silk  Road  LAUREN  ARNOLD  (research 
associate,  Ricci  Institute  of  the  Center  for  the  Pacific  Rim,  University  of  San  Francisco):  Medieval  diplomats 
and  merchants  alike  would  give  and  receive  lavish  gifts  as  they  established  foreign  contact.  Marco  Polo 
presented  "fine  vessels  of  crystal  and  other  things"  to  Khubilai  Khan.  Franciscan  monks  followed  in  the 
trader's  footsteps  at  the  Yuan  court.  The  princely  gifts  that  were  exchanged,  and  artistic  influences,  can  be 
detected  in  paintings  from  both  China  and  the  West. 

3:30  PM  Stretch  break 

3:35  pm  (panel  discussion)  Did  Marco  Polo  really  reach  China?  DR.  )OHN  M.  SMITH  (U.C.  Berkeley) 


2 ^ 


Musical  Legacies  of  the  Silh  Road 

May  4,  2001 


1 . Musfc  From  Marco  Polo's  Venice 

Roy  Whelden  (vielle),  Peter  Maund  (percussion),  Cheryl  Ann  Fulton  (medieval  harp) 

Lamento  de  Tristano  & La  Rotta  Anonymous,  London,  Brit. Lib.  Add. Ms  29987 

Via  bombyci  arr  CAF 

Lauda  selections  Anonymous  Italian,  13th  century 

In  Pro  Anonymous,  London,  Brit. Lib.  Add. Ms  29987 

The  middle  point  of  Marco  Polo's  life  falls  on  one  of  the  landmark  dates  of  European  music  history^:  the 
beginning  circa  1300  of  the  ars  nova.  The  musicians  of  the  ars  nova  explored  new  territory  in  the  fields  of 
rhythm,  meter  and  polyphony.  Interestingly,  Italy,  and  Venice  in  particular,  seem  to  have  been  a generation 
behind  western  Europe  in  the  development  of  this  new  music. 

The  ars  nova  drew  away  from  the  tradition  of  monophonic  music.  Composers  turned  away  from  the 
antiquated  traditions  of  the  13th  century  (troubadour,  trouvere,  cantiga,  lauda)  to  concentrate  on  polyphony. 
But  not,  immediately,  in  Italy.  The  production  of  lauda  (devotional  songs)  continued  in  Italy  well  past  that 
landmark  date  of  1300. 

While  it  is  easy  to  point  out  the  landmarks  in  the  history  of  music  from  the  perspective  of  seven  centuries,  in 
fact,  the  demarcation  of  musical  styles  is  fuzzy.  A case  in  point  is  the  (predominately)  monophonic  dance 
form  known  as  estampie  (France)  or  istampitta  (Italy).  The  earliest  examples  come  from  the  middle  of  the 
13th  century  in  manuscripts  of  French  provenance  (Paris,  Bibliotheque  Nationale,  fonds  frangais  844) 
The  latest  examples,  written  in  ars  nova  rhythmic  notation,  are  from  14th  century'  Italian  manuscripts 
(London,  British  Library,  Additional  29987).  It  is  not  surprising,  perhaps,  to  find  the  monophonic  tradition 
surviving  as  dance  music.  The  practitioners  of  dance  music  would  often  be  the  jongluers  (instrumentalists), 
a class  of  musicians  who  learned  and  transmitted  their  art  by  oral  tradition-a  kind  of  music  making  that 
tends  to  be  conservative. 

We  have  combined  these  different  traditions  (lauda  and  istampitta)  to  give  a representative  sample  of  Italian 
music  in  the  early  14th  century.  We  offer  four  instrumental  dances.  The  first  is  based  on  the  lauda  Gloria  in 
cielo  (performed  instrumentally),  which  is  then  turned  into  an  istampitta  (specifically,  into  an  istampitta  and 
rotta — a characteristically  Italian  arrangement;  the  rotta  is  a fast  variation  on  the  ]ust  heard  istampitta).  We 
perform  two  14th  century  dances  from  the  29987  manuscript:  Lamento  de  Tristano  and  In  Pro.  The  first  of 
these  is  another  istampitta-  rotta  pair.  The  second  is  a single  istampitta,  but  one  of  very  complex  structure 
and  character.  The  remaining  piece,  Via  bombyci,  is  our  own  construction.  There  are  only  two  or  three  dozen 
extant  medieval  instrumental  pieces.  Modern  musicians  wishing  to  play  medieval  music  are  often  forced  to 
write  it  themselves,  either  using  fragments  of  13th  and  14th  century  music  (the  istampitta  Gloria  in  cielo  is 
based  not  only  on  the  lauda  Gloria  in  cielo  but  on  fragments  of  orphaned  lauda)  or  composing  the  music 
from  whole  cloth,  using  one’s  knowledge  of  the  extant  examples. 

|A  final  note:  istampitta  Gloria  in  cielo  was  written  and  performed  by  |ann  Cosart  and  the  ensemble  Altramar. 
With  their  permission,  we  transcribed  the  music  from  their  Dorian  Recording  Nova  Stella.  This  felt  fair,  since 
Altramar  has  been  using  one  of  our  pieces  for  years-Le  premier  estampie,  which  we  reconstructed  from  a 
fragment  in  fonds  frangais  844.1 

2.  Dance  From  Central  Asia 
Laurel  Victoria  Gray 

lim  Grippo  (Kanun  and  oud);  Susan  Rudnicki  (doire  and  tombak  ).  Amy  Cyr  (nay) 


Munodzhat  is  a lament  to  God  and  the  title  of  a poem  by  1 5th  century  poet  Alisher  Navoi.  The  dance  itself, 
set  to  classical  Uzbek  music,  can  be  interpreted  on  two  levels.  One  is  the  stor>'  of  a young  woman  who  is 
forbidden  to  marry  the  man  she  loves.  She  prays  for  her  deliverance  from  this  situation  and,  in  her  despair, 
hallucinates,  thinking  she  sees  her  beloved  before  her.  She  dances  ioyously,  only  to  realize  that  the 
apparition  is  just  that — an  illusion.  She  then  surrenders  to  her  fate.  On  a spiritual  plane,  Munodzhat 
symbolizes  the  search  for  the  “beloved/’  the  Sufi  allegory  for  union  with  the  divine. 

Choreography  by  People’s  Artist  of  Uzbekistan,  Ishar  Akilov 


This  dance  is  based  on  the  eponymous  book  by  Armen  Ohanian,  who  describes  her  life  at  the  beginning  of 
the  twentieth  century  in  the  Caucasus  and  Persia.  The  town  of  Shamakha,  now  part  of  Azerbaijan,  was 
famous  for  two  things — silk  and  dancing  girls.  “Glorious  in  all  Asia  Minor"  Ohanain  explained,  “these  dancers 
wandered  from  city  to  city,  kindling  all  hearts  with  the  music  of  their  tinkling  ornaments. . .Goddesses  with 
languid  eyes,  in  which  smoldered  the  fires  of  all  human  passions,  bodies  trembling,  waving  delicate  veils." 
The  music  is  a traditional  Azerbaijani  wedding  dance  melody,  and  the  costume  is  based  on  a 19th  century 
watercolor  of  a dancer  from  Shamakha. 

Choreography  by  Laurel  Victoria  Gray 

3.  Melody  of  China 

Wang  Hong  (multi  instruments)  and  Zhao  Yangqin  (yangqin) 

Horse  Racing  (Mongolia) 

Lanterns  Festival  (North  China) 

Joyful  Xinjiang  People 
(Northwest  China — Uighur  area) 

Music  by  Hai  Huai 
Erhu  solo;  Wang  Hong 

Folk  Music 

Bahn  solo:  Wang  Hong 

Traditional,  arranged  by  Zhao  Deming 
yangqin  solo:  Zhao  Yangqin 
dapu  (hand  drum):  Wang  Hong 

Har^dan  Sanffarkand^  ^ 

k S;lf«gar 


To  ’ 




... . 'V 

nioch  ! 

a . Lake  Baike^ 

LjSea  rturfan 

^ ^ Kashgar  ) j>-4LHamr 







3200  Bc  Horse  domesticated  on  south  Russian  Steppe 

3000  BC  Silk  first  produced  in  China 

2500  BC  Domestication  of  the  Bactrian  and  Arabian  camel,  vital 
for  desert  travel 

900  BC  Spread  of  mounted  nomadism 

753  BC  Rome  founded 

400  BC  Empire  of  Alexander  the  Great  expands  into  Asia 

300  BC  Roman  expansion  begins 

Parthians  establish  their  empire  in  Iran 

Qin  dynasty  unites  China  for  the  first  time 

200  BC  Han  power  reaches  Tarim  region.  The  Silk  Road  under 
China's  control  and  the  route  to  the  West  now  open. 

100  BC  Mithridates,  Parthian  king,  sends  ambassadors  to  both 
Sulla  and  Wu-ti  to  provide  an  important  link 
between  Rome  and  China. 

1 AD  Silk  first  seen  in  Rome 

Kushan  Empire  of  Central  Asia.  Sogdians  trading  on 
Silk  Route. 

Chinese  General  Pan  Ch’ao  defeats  Xiongnu  and  keeps 
the  peace  in  the  Tarim  Basin.  The  stability  of  the 
silk  road  popularizes  the  caravan  trades  into  two 
routes — north  and  south. 

China  sends  the  first  ambassador  to  Rome  from  Pan 
Ch’ao’s  command,  but  he  fails  to  reach  Rome. 

Graeco-Egyptian  geographer,  Claudius  Ptolemy,  writes 
his  Geography,  attempts  to  map  the  Silk  road. 

100  AD  Rome  sends  the  first  Roman  envoy  by  sea  to  China; 

Roman  Empire  at  its  largest  and  a major  market  for 
Eastern  goods. 

The  four  great  empires  of  the  day — the  Roman, 

Parthian,  Kushan,  and  Chinese — bring  stability  to 
the  Silk  Road. 

200  AD  Silk  is  woven  into  cloth  across  Asia,  but  using  Chinese 

Han  dynasty  ends,  China  fragmented. 

300  AD  Constantinople  becomes  Rome’s  capital.  Roman 
Empire  splits  in  two. 

Dun  Huang  caves  start  to  appear. 

Fa-hsien,  a Buddhist  monk,  and  one  of  the  first 
known  Chinese  Silk  Road  travellers  sets  out  to 
India  by  foot. 

A Chinese  princess  smuggles  some  silkworm  eggs  out 
of  China.  Silkworm  farms  appear  in  Central  Asia. 

500  AD  Silkworm  farms  appear  in  Europe. 

Nestorian  Christians  reach  China. 

Split  of  the  Turkish  Kaganate  into  Eastern  and  Western 
Kaganates.  Western  Turks  move  to  Central  Asia 
from  Mongolian  Plateau.  At  the  Chinese  end  of 
Central  Asia,  the  Eastern  Turks  or  Uighurs  are  in 
control.  Sui  Dynasty  reunites  China. 

600  AD  Roman  Empire  becomes  Byzantine  Empire 

For  the  first  two  centuries,  the  Silk  Road  reaches  its 
golden  age.  China  very  open  to  foreign  cultural 

Islamic  religion  founded;  Sassanian  P^ia  falls  to  the 
Arabs;  Muslims  control  Mesopotamia  and  Iran, 
along  with  the  Silk  and  Spice  routes. 

700  AD  Arabs  conquer  Spain  in  Europe,  which  introduces 
Eastern  technology  and  science  to  Europe. 

Arabs  defeat  Chinese  at  Talas — papermaking 

introduced  to  West;  Tang  dynasty  begins  to  decline, 
and  with  it,  the  Silk  Road. 

800  AD  Venice  established  as  a city-state. 

Gunpowder  invented  in  China. 

1 100  AD  Genghis  Khan  unites  Mongols,  expansion  of  Mongol 
Empire  begins. 

Silk  production  and  weaving  established  in  Italy. 

1200  AD  Genghis  Khan  dies;  Friar  Giovanni  Carpini  leaves  Rome 
for  Mongol  capital  at  Karakorum.  Friar  William 
Rubruck  sent  to  Karakorum  by  the  King  of  France; 
Silk  Road  trade  prospers  again  under  the  "Pax 
Mongolica";  Kublai  Khan  defeats  China  and 
establishes  the  Yuan  dynasty. 

Marco  Polo  leaves  for  the  East. 

1300  AD  Turkish  Ottoman  Empire  in  power;  Tamerlane  with 
capital  in  Samarkand  rises  and  conquers  Persia, 
parts  of  Russia  and  northern  India 

Third  silk  road  route  appears  in  the  north;  Ibn  Battuta, 
the  first  known  Arab  travels  on  a journey  to  China 
via  the  Silk  Road. 

The  Black  Death  spreads  throughout  Europe 

Mongol  Yuan  Dynasty  collapses. 

1400  AD  Death  of  Tamerlane  leads  to  the  decline  of  Mongol 
power;  Ottomans  conquer  Constantinople. 

Fearing  the  power  of  Uighurs,  Ming  China  reduces  the 
trade  and  traffic  dramatically  on  the  Silk  Road. 

The  Silk  Road  comes  to  an  end  for  purposes  of  silk; 
Lyon  becomes  the  new  center  of  the  silk  trade. 

1800  AD  German  scholar,  Baron  Ferdinand  von  Richthofen  uses 
the  term  "Silk  Road"  (Seidenstrasse)  for  the  first  time. 

Thanks  to  Albert  Dien,  Adela  Lee  and  Pat  Bassett. 


LAUREN  ARNOLD'S  academic  background  is  in  medieval 
history  and  art  history,  with  degrees  from  the  University  of 
Michigan.  Her  professional  background  includes  museum 
administrator,  book  editor,  and  manager  of  an  art  gallery. 
Princely  Gifts  and  Papal  Treasures:  The  Franciscan  Mission  to  China 
and  its  Influence  on  the  Art  of  the  West  1250-1350  was  published  by 
the  Ricci  Institute  for  Chinese-Western  Cultural  History,  part 
of  the  Center  for  the  Pacific  Rim  at  the  University  of  San 
Francisco,  in  1999.  She  and  a colleague  rediscovered  the 
painting  of  the  "Heavenly  Horse,"  thought  to  have  been  lost 
for  over  two  hundred  years. 

ALBERT  DIEN  attended  Washington  University,  the  Univer- 
sity of  Chicago,  and  the  University  of  California,  Berkeley;  his 
degrees  are  all  from  the  latter.  He  has  taught  at  the  University 
of  Hawaii,  Columbia  University  and  Stanford.  Since  retiring 
from  Stanford  seven  years  ago  he  has  been  to  China  as  a 
member  of  delegations,  attending  conferences,  leading  tours, 
and  for  his  own  research.  He  is  at  present  completing  a volume 
on  the  material  culture  of  the  Early  Medieval  period  in  Chinese 
history  (220-589  ad).  He  has  participated  in  conferences  in 
China  at  Dunhuang  (1994)  and  at  Kucha  (1977)  and  taught  a 
month-long  workshop  for  30  students  at  Dunhuang  (1998). 

^ 3 

BIOGRAPHIES  continued 

LAUREL  VICTORIA  GRAY  has  taught  and  performed 
throughout  North  America,  Europe,  Central  Asia,  and  Australia. 
Specializing  in  the  cultures  of  the  Silk  Road,  Ms.  Gray  has 
traveled  to  Uzbekistan  ten  times,  living  there  for  two  years. 
She  has  taught  at  George  Mason  University,  the  Iranian 
Community  School,  and  has  lectured  at  the  Middle  East  Insti- 
tute, UCLA,  Occidental  College,  and  other  universities.  Her 
research  articles  have  appeared  in  the  Oxford  University  Press 
international  Encyclopedia  of  Dance,  the  Wor/cf  Encyclopedia  of 
Contemporary  Theatre.  Dance  Magazine,  and  numerous  Middle 
Eastern  dance  publications.  She  was  the  recipient  of  the  1999 
International  Academy  of  Middle  Eastern  Dance  Award  for 
Ethnic  Dance.  Ms.  Gray  currently  teaches  at  loy  of  Motion  in 
Washington,  D.C. 

MORRIS  ROSSABI,  born  in  Alexandria,  Egypt,  moved  to  the 
U.S.  when  he  was  ten  years  old.  His  Ph.D.  is  in  Chinese  and 
Inner  Asian  history  from  Columbia  University.  He  is  author  of 
Kfiubilai  Khan:  His  Life  and  Times  (University  of  California  Press, 
China  Among  Equals  (University  of  California  Press),  Voyager  from 
Xanadu  (Kodansha),  Bounty  from  the  Sheep  (Cambridge  Press), 
and  other  books  and  articles,  including  the  essays  on  China’s 
relations  with  Inner  Asia  in  all  volumes  of  the  Cambridge 
History  of  China.  1200-1800.  He  contributed  catalog  essays  for 
exhibitions  at  the  Asian  Art  Museum  of  San  Francisco  (1995) 
Metropolitan  Museum  of  Art  (1998  and  2001).  He  is  on  the 
Board  of  Advisors  of  the  Soros  Foundation  projects  on 
Central  Asia  and  a recent  recipient  of  Soros  Foundation 
Individual  Project  Fellowship.  He  is  currently  Professor  of 
Chinese  and  Inner  Asian  History  at  City  University  of  New 
York  and  Columbia  University. 

JOHN  MASSON  SMITH,  JR.  is  Professor  emeritus.  History 
Department,  University  of  California,  Berkeley.  He  studied  at 
Harvard  (AB)  and  Columbia  (MA,  PhD)  and  taught  Middle 
Eastern  and  Inner  Asian  history  at  Berkeley,  1962-93.  His 
research  has  centered  on  imperial  Mongol  history  (thirteenth 
and  fourteenth  centuries).  He  has  written  many  articles  on 
Mongol  coinage,  demography,  diet,  logistics,  strategy,  tactics 
and  weaponry — e.g.  "Dietary  Decadence  and  Dynastic  Decline 
in  the  Mongol  Empire,"  journal  of  Asian  History.  34  (2000).  He 
has  traveled  for  research  in  most  of  the  Middle  East,  to  con- 
ferences in  Russia  and  Mongolia,  on  tour  in  Uzbekistan,  and 
passing  through  Beijing. 

S.  FREDERICK  STARR,  a historian,  educator,  musicologist 
and  jazz  musician,  taught  at  Princeton  and  founded  the 
Kennan  Institute  in  Washington  before  serving  as  Vice  Presi- 
dent of  Tulane  University  and,  for  eleven  years,  President  of 
Oberlin  College.  He  now  chairs  the  Central  Asia-Caucasus 
Institute  of  the  Nitze  School.  Johns  Hopkins  University  in 
Washington  DC,  and  is  planning  a new  university  for  the  Aga 
Khan.  Starr  took  part  in  the  October  2000  Humanities  West 
program  Nw  Orleans  1900  as  a speaker  and  a jazz  clarinetist. 

CHERYL  ANN  FULTON  is  America’s  premier  performer  of 
historical  harps  as  well  as  an  inspiring  and  popular  performer 
of  Celtic  and  contemporary  music  on  lever  harp.  Her  first  solo 
album.  The  Airs  of  Wales,  performed  on  an  original  Welsh  triple 
harp,  brought  her  international  recognition.  A member  of 
Ensemble  Alcatraz,  she  has  performed  and  recorded  with 
many  of  today’s  leading  early  music  ensembles  in  the  US  and 
abroad.  Her  medieval  harp  choir,  Angelorum,  performed  on 
the  latest  Ensemble  Alcatraz  CD  Cantigas  de  Amigo.  Dr.  Fulton 
holds  a D.M.  in  early  music  from  Indiana  University. 

A native  of  San  Francisco,  PETER  MAUND  studied  per- 
cussion at  the  San  Francisco  Conservatory  of  Music;  tabla 
at  the  Ali  Akbar  College  of  Music;  and  music,  folklore,  and 
ethnomusicology  at  the  University  of  California,  Berkeley 
(A.B.,  M.A.).  As  a Ph.D  candidate  at  Berkeley,  he  specialized  in 
the  music  of  north  India.  He  has  performed  and  recorded  with 
various  early  music,  contemporary  music,  and  world  music 
ensembles  throughout  North  America,  the  U.K.  and  Europe,  in- 
cluding Alasdair  Fraser’s  group  Skyedance,  Davka,  Chanticleer, 
Ensemble  Project  Ars  Nova,  Paul  Hillier,  Quaternaria,  and 
Hesperion  XX. 

While  searching  for  a language  program  on  short-wave  radio, 
singer/songwriter  PAUL  PENA  chanced  to  hear  throat-singers 
from  Tuva.  Fascinated,  the  blind  singer  first  searched  for 
someone  to  explain  what  he  had  heard,  then  taught  himself 
the  technique.  A touring  throat-singer  invited  him  to  visit 
Tuva  and  participate  in  a competition.  Pena,  accompanied  by 
an  independent  film  maker,  went  and  won  the  competition. 
The  resulting  documentary,  "Genghis  Blues"  was  nominated 
for  an  Academy  Award  in  1999.  The  attention  has  sparked  a 
new  interest  in  an  album  from  1973  that  was  never  released. 
"New  Train"  was  released  in  2000  and  has  won  much  praise. 
Born  in  Massachusetts  to  a family  with  roots  in  Cape  Verde, 
Africa,  Pena  studied  flamenco  guitar  in  Spain  and  Portugal. 
He  has  learned  Cape  Verde  Creole,  Spanish,  Korean,  Chinese, 
lapanese  and  a little  Tuvan. 

WANG  HONG  is  a member  of  Chinese  Nationalities  Orchestra 
Society,  Artistic  Director  of  Melody  of  China,  a music 
educator,  composer  and  performing  artist.  Under  the  sponsor- 
ships of  world  music  festivals  he  has  performed  and  lectured 
in  Europe  and  the  Far  East.  Wang  Hong  is  a graduate  of 
Nanjing  Normal  University’s  Music  Department  where  he 
studied  er-hu  (Chinese  fiddle)  and  Huqin  (Chinese  2-stringed 
instruments).  He  is  a member  of  the  Chinese  National 
Orchestra  Society,  the  Chinese  Musicians  Association,  and 
former  Board  Director  of  the  Chinese  Wind  Instruments 
Society.  At  present,  he  is  a Chinese  instruments  instructor  at 
Laney  College  at  Oakland,  San  Francisco  Community  Music 
School  and  active  participant  in  the  educational  program 
Young  Imaginations  in  Marin  County. 

ROY  WHELDEN,  a trumpet  player  from  the  age  of  seven 
and  cellist  from  twelve,  discovered  the  viola  da  gamba  while 
a graduate  student  in  music  theory.  Studies  of  the  gamba 
and  medieval  vielle  eventually  led  to  a D.M.  from  Indiana 
University.  Whelden  has  performed  and  recorded  with  ensem- 
bles from  around  the  United  States  and  Europe,  including 
Sequentia  and  Ensemble  Alcatraz.  Since  1986,  he  has  per- 
formed with  American  Baroque  and  recorded  with  them  his 
own  compositions:  Galax  and  Like  a Passing  River.  A recipient  of 
a grant  from  California  Arts  Council  in  the  year  2000,  Whelden’s 
current  compositional  projects  include  the  completion  of  a 
multi-movement  work  titled  journeys. 

ZHAO  YANG-QIN  is  the  hammered  dulcimer  soloist  of 
Melody  of  China  and  member  of  Chinese  Nationalities 
Orchestra  Society.  Prophetically  named,  she  has  established 
herself  as  one  of  the  foremost  yangqin  (Chinese  dulcimer) 
performers  in  the  world,  having  been  elected  to  the  presti- 
gious Chinese  Musicians  Association  and  the  Chinese 
Nationalities  Orchestra  Society.  In  1982,  she  graduated  with 
honors  from  Nanjing  Normal  University’s  Music  Department 
and  eventually  became  head  of  the  faculty  of  instrumental 
music  of  that  university.  Ms.  Zhao  has  been  invited  to  perform 
and  lecture  throughout  the  world. 

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PAGE  7 




A giant  of  the  Italian  Renaissance,  indeed  of  Western  civilization,  Michelangelo  Buonarroti  has  left  an  unparalleled 
legacy  of  brilliant,  highly  personal  art,  architecture,  and  poetry.  His  frescoes  in  the  Vatican  Palace  and  his  architecture 
and  sculpture  for  St.  Peter's  Basilica  have  linked  the  name  of  this  passionate  Florentine  patriot  inextricably  with  the 
Eternal  City  of  the  popes,  where  he  spent  nearly  half  of  his  eighty-nine  years.  Excellent  speakers  will  reexamine  some  of 
il  divino  Michelangelo’s  greatest  works  in  light  of  stimulating  recent  scholarly  and  scientific  discoveries.  A program  of 
secular  and  sacred  music  enriches  the  cultural,  political,  and  religious  backdrop  of  Renaissance  Rome. 


Barcelona  stands  unique  among  the  great  cities  of  the  world.  Its  cultural  singularity  is  owed  to  Catalan  pride;  its  beacon 
to  the  traveler  is  manmade  beauty  against  a landscape  blessed  by  sun,  wind  and  sea.  The  journey  into  Barcelona's  past 
begins  with  the  story  of  the  fiercely  independent  Catalonian  spirit,  captured  by  traditional  Catalan  music  Friday 
evening.  Saturday,  experts  explore  the  mid- 1800s  to  the  early  20th  century,  when  the  beautiful  medieval  city  was  trans- 
formed by  visionary  urban  planners.  They  view  with  us  the  city  of  art  nouveau  through  works  of  the  writers,  artists,  and 
architects  who  called  Barcelona  home.  Highlighted  is  the  incomparable  architecture  of  master  Antoni  Gaudi. 


Europeans  rediscovered  ancient  Egypt  after  the  incursion  of  Napoleon.  In  the  nineteenth  century,  the  unearthing  of  the 
Rosetta  Stone  and  the  magnificent  artifacts  of  King  'Tutankamon's  tomb  lure  writers  and  artists  as  well  as  archeologists 
to  Egypt.  Friday  evening’s  program  reveals  how  ancient  Egypt  inspired  and  transformed  Western  art,  from  furniture,  archi- 
tecture and  design  to  the  operas  of  Giuseppe  Verdi.  Saturday,  distinguished  speakers  from  across  the  country  illuminate 
the  lives  and  beliefs  of  the  great  pharoahs;  view  glorious  architecture,  art  and  technology  of  the  realm  3500  years  ago; 
and  show  exciting  recent  excavations  on  the  Nile. 


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There  is  no  charge,  but  an  ID  deposit  is  required. 




57  Post  Street,  Suite  814 
San  Francisco,  CA  94104 

PHONE  415/391-9700 
F/OC  415/391-9708 



Spring  2001  « exploring  history  to  celebrate  the  mind  and  the  arts  » 


May  4 and  5,  2001 
Merest  Theatre,  San  Francisco. 

presented  in  cooperation  with  the  The  Silkroad  Foundation, 

University  of  San  Francisco,  Center  for  the  Pacific  Rim  and  Its  Ricci  Institute, 
the  Italian  Cultural  Institute  and  the  Mechanics’  Institute  Library 

"...  there  never  was  a man,  be  he  Christian  or  Saracen  or  Tartar  or  Heathen,  who  ever  travelled  over  so  much  of  the  world  as  did  that  noble  and  illustrious 
citizen  of  the  City  of  Venice,  Messr  Marco  the  son  of  Messr  Nico/o  Polo." 

— The  Book  of  Ser  Marco  Polo  the  Venetian  Concerning  the  Kingdoms  and  Marvels  of  the  East. 

The  name  "Silk  Road,"  Seidenstrassen,  was  first  applied  by  the 
19th  century  German  geographer,  Ferdinand  von  Richthofen, 

(yes,  uncle  to  the  infamous  Red  Baron)  to  this  trade  route  of 
antiquity.  Both  Greeks  and  Romans  referred  to  China  as  'Seres’, 
and  it  is  from  this  that  the  word  silk  is  derived. 

The  Silk  Road  was  in  actuality  a network  of  routes  evolving 
over  centuries,  but  it  was  in  essence  a trade  route  linking  the 
East  with  the  West,  a journey  of  about  7,000  miles.  Silk  was  the 
main  export  from  China,  sought  by  the  Romans  for  their  "glass 
togas"  and  driving  the  trade  routes  extensions  until  the  secret 
of  making  the  fine  silk  thread  and  cloth  was  transferred  to 
Europe  via  Byzantium.  Once  the  secret  itself  travelled  the  trail. 

Continued  on  Page  6 


. SOi 


. . Lake  Balkaih' 

Sea  r'-turfan'" 

^ Kashgar  ) 

Bokhara  | 




FRIDAY  EVENING,  S.  Frederick  Starr  discusses  life  in  the  thirteen  countries  crossed  by  the  Silk  Road  today. 

Fred  Starr,  Chairman  of  the  Central  Asia  Studies  Center  of  the  Nitze  Institute  of  lohns  Hopkins 
University,  was  the  very  popular  Saturday  afternoon  lecturer  and  guest  clarinetist  at  HW’s 
"New  Orleans"  program  in  October.  SATURDAY,  travel  across  Asia  and  back  in  time  with 
distinguished  scholars.  From  medieval  Venice  all  the  way  to  Cathay,  the  wondrous  exotic  trails 
still  have  the  power  to  draw  us. 

FRIDAY  EVENING,  enjoy  music  from  Marco  Polo's  Venice  and  across  Central  Asia,  culminating 
in  world  music  master  Paul  Pena's  performance  of  Tuvan  throat-singing,  an  ancient  art  that  now 
captivates  audiences  in  the  West  as  well  as  East. 


See  HW  advance  ticket  purchase  order  form,  page  7 

Friends  of  HW  Special  Events 

Save  tfie  Datesl 

Pre-Program  Stops  on  the  Silh  Road 

WEDNESDAY,  MARCH  28  7:30  pm 
Music  of  Venice 
at  Old  St.  Mark's  Cathedral 

The  Italian  Cultural  Institute  presents 
Quartetto  d’Arcfii  di  Venezia  in  concert, 
music  by  Boccerini,  Malipiero,  Maderna 
and  Verdi.  $10  Friends  of  HW,  $15  gen- 
eral public.  St.  Mary’s  Cathedral,  1111 
Gough  Street  (at  Geary),  San  Francisco. 
Tickets  and  reservations  415/788-7142. 

THURSDAY,  APRIL  12  6:00  pm-7:30  pm 
Three  Cities  of  the  Silh  Road 

loin  us  for  a slide-illustrated  talk  by 
Frank  Rettenberg,  who  recently  returned 
from  a tour  of  Central  Asia.  He  is  a 
retired  foreign  service  officer  and 
member  of  the  World  Affairs  Council  and 
HW  Board  of  Directors.  Mechanics' 
Institute,  57  Post  Street  4th  Floor.  FREE 
to  Friends  of  HW;  $5  for  the  general 

TUESDAY,  APRIL  17  6:00  pm-7:30  pm 
Tuva  Calling 

This  slide-illustrated  journey  to  Tuva 
includes  a live  demonstration  of  throat- 
singing and  the  musical  instrument  the 
Igil.  Presenters  Seth  Quittner  and  Lemon 
DeGeorge  will  describe  music  and 
musicians  of  'Tuva;  the  Tuvan  country- 
side, people  and  culture;  and  Tuvan 
shamanism.  They  include  personal 
accounts  about  the  Bai-Taiga  region, 
where  both  of  them  spent  time  living 
with  nomads  in  yurts. 

Lemon  DeGeorge  is  a Bay  Area  musi- 
cian and  recording  engineer.  He  was 
one  of  the  main  characters  in  the  Qscar- 
nominated  film  “Genghis  Blues,"  as 
well  as  the  sound  recordist  on  location 
in  Tuva.  DeGeorge  recorded  and  co- 
produced the  CD  "Genghis  Blues"  in  his 
studio  in  San  Francisco.  Seth  Augustus 
Quittner  is  a Bay  Area  musician  and 
graphic  designer.  He  first  heard 
throatsinging  in  1998,  soon  became  a 
student  of  Paul  Pena's  and  has  since 
studied  with  several  Tuvan  Masters.  He 
does  four  styles  of  throatsinging  and 
plays  the  Igil,  a 2-stringed,  bowed  Tuvan 

This  program  is  FREE  and  open  to  the 
public.  San  Francisco  Main  Library  Koret 
Auditorium  (Grove  and  Larkin  streets). 
Presented  in  cooperation  with  the  San 
Francisco  Public  Library.  Seating  is  unre- 
served. For  information  call  415/391-9700. 

Message  from  the  Chair 

Dear  Friends  of  Humanities  West: 

Congratulations  to  all  connected  with  Rome  in  the  Year  One.  It  was  one  of  our 
most  successful  programs  in  recent  years,  and  we  are  especially  grateful  to 
Diane  Middlebrook,  a member  of  our  Advisory  Council,  for  her  work  in 
organizing  and  moderating  this  excellent  program. 

Now  that  we  have  studied  life  in  Ancient  Rome,  it  is  time  to  turn  our 
attention  to  the  Silk  Road.  Venice  to  Xanadu:  Marco  Polo’s  Silk  Road  is  the  final  pro- 
gram in  our  seventeenth  season,  and  it  allows  us  to  link  two  areas — Venice  and 
Asia — that  have  each  been  the  subject  of  several  Humanities  West  programs 
over  the  years.  Like  many  of  our  presentations,  the  Silk  Road  program  repre- 
sents the  flowering  of  an  idea  that  has  been  under  discussion  for  some  time. 
Special  thanks  go  to  Charles  Bowman,  our  Secretary/Treasurer  and  a member 
of  our  Board,  for  his  efforts  in  organizing  this  program. 

1 am  also  pleased  to  report  that  we  received  an  enthusiastic  response  to  the 
program  preference  survey  that  was  distributed  at  the  Year  Qne  program.  As 
experienced  attendees  of  our  programs  know,  we  distribute  these  surveys  only 
once  every  two  years,  and  we  give  them  great  weight  in  planning  our  programs. 
Although  a three-line  description  can  only  begin  to  do  justice  to  most  of  the 
program  ideas,  1 think  the  survey  conveyed  a good  sense  of  how  rich  many 
of  the  14  program  ideas  could  be.  We  will  be  using  the  survey  results  as  we 
begin  to  plan  the  programs  for  our  nineteenth  season,  which  will  begin  in  the 
Fall  of  2002. 

Finally,  as  you  now  know  from  Nancy  Buffum's  letter,  she  will  be  leaving  her 
post  as  Executive  Director  at  the  end  of  our  current  fiscal  year  to  spend  more 
time  with  her  young  family.  Nancy  has  served  as  our  Executive  Director  for 
nearly  seven  years,  and  we  deeply  appreciate  the  skill,  energy,  tact  and  tenacity 
that  she  has  brought  to  her  work.  We  are  now  in  the  midst  of  searching  for  a 
new  Executive  Director,  and  we  recognize  that  the  challenge  of  recruiting  an 
equally  able  successor  will  be  substantial.  Qn  the  other  hand,  we  also  know  that 
Humanities  West  has  a track  record  of  presenting  excellent  programs  and 
enjoys  widespread  audience  support,  and  we  are  sure  that  those  things  will  help 
us  in  attracting  excellent  candidates. 


HW  seeks  Executive  Director 

The  Board  of  Directors  is  recruiting  a new  Executive  Director  for 
Humanities  West,  a 17-year-old  non  profit  presenter  of  public  cultural 
programs  with  an  annual  budget  of  $220K.  The  Executive  Director  is 
responsible  for  program  development,  production  and  marketing; 
audience  and  resource  development;  management  and  budget 
administration.  He/she  works  closely  with  the  Board  of  Directors,  and 
is  assisted  by  the  Associate  Director,  Advisory  Council,  contractors  and 
volunteers.  Required:  mature,  creative  individual  with  excellent  verbal 
and  writing  skills,  able  to  adhere  to  tight  performance  deadlines;  proven 
record  of  achievement  in  the  arts  and  humanities.  Salary  commensurate 
with  experience.  Cover  letter  and  resume  to:  Search  Committee. 
Humanities  West  57  Post  Street  #8 1 4,  SF,  CA  94 1 04. 

« 2 » 

Message  from  the  Executive  Director 

Humanities  West,  Future  Vision 

There  is  much  to  look  forward  to  at  Humanities  West.  Vemce  To  Xanadu:  Marco  Polo's 
Silk  Road  (May  4 and  5 at  Herbst  Theatre)  has  been  long  awaited  by  many  of  us. 
Next  year's  season  includes  three  programs  audience  members  rated  highly  on 
the  1999  audience  survey:  Michelangelo,  Barcelona,  and  ancient  Egypt.  As  the 
future  program  survey  at  'Rome'  indicates,  there  is  no  shortage  of  topics  in  the 
history  of  arts  and  ideas  to  bring  humanities  lovers  to  Herbst  Theatre  for  many 
years  to  come. 

1 am  especially  pleased  that  with  the  help  of  local  colleges  and  universities, 
the  California  Classical  Association,  the  San  Francisco  Unified  School  District, 
and  you,  donors  to  Humanities  West,  that  more  teachers  and  students  are  now 
coming  to  HW  programs.  HW  continues  to  do  our  part  to  foster  an  informed, 
intellectually  curious  citizenry  and  offer  a public  place  for  exploring  history  to 
celebrate  the  mind  and  the  arts. 

1 would  like  to  see  a full  theater  every  program,  with  Friends  of  HW  subscribing 
and  bringing  your  friends;  cooperating  institutions  introducing  new  audiences 
to  our  programs;  and  a portion  of  the  seats  reserved  for  students  and  educators. 

As  you  see  from  the  notice  of  a search  for  a new  Executive  Director,  1 am 
leaving  my  position  this  summer,  after  this  my  seventh  season.  1 look  forward 
to  spending  more  time  with  my  children.  I also  look  forward  to  staying  active 
with  Humanities  West,  where  1 have  learned  so  much  and  made  so  many  friends. 
I'll  see  you  at  Herbst  Theatre! 

Nancy  Buffum 

HW  Board  Notes 

We  would  like  to  welcome  longtime  HW  donor  and  season  subscriber  lay  Wiener 
to  the  HW  Board  of  Directors.  Jay  Wiener  is  a lawyer  in  San  Francisco.  He  received 
his  B.A.  in  History  from  Reed  College  and  his  ).D.  from  the  University  of  Mississippi, 
his  home  state.  In  addition  to  his  interest  in  art,  literature,  and  music,  he  is  an 
accomplished  mountain  climber  and  cross-country  skier,  just  this  year  becoming  a 
World  Loppet  Master,  upon  his  completing  his  tenth  international  cross-country 
ski  marathon.  Jay's  primary  civic  involvement,  at  present,  is  the  organization  of  an 
international  architectural  competition,  through  the  San  Francisco  Museum  of  Modern 
Art,  to  investigate  how  ecological  requirements  and  new  technologies  will  reshape 
mountain  huts. 

WEDNESDAY,  April  4 5:45  pm 

Orville  Schell  (journalist  and  Dean  of  the 
Graduate  School  of  Journalism  at  U.C. 
Berkeley)  in  an  armchair  interview  with 
Marsha  Vande  Berg  (Editor,  Tfie  World 
Report)  "Focus  on  U.S.-China  relations  on 
the  eve  of  China's  accession  to  the  WTO." 

APRIL  11,2001  5:45  pm 

"Korea:  Asia's  New  Miracle  in  the  21st 
Century"  a talk  by  Dr.  Patrick  Lloyd 

Cooperating  Institution  Events 

Hatcher  (Kiriyama  Distinguished  Scholar- 
in-Residence  at  the  University  of  San 
Francisco  Center  for  the  Pacific  Rim). 

Both  events  take  place  at  University  of 
San  Francisco,  Lone  Mountain  Campus, 
Room  100,  2800  Turk  Street  (between 
Masonic  & Parker)  and  are  co-sponsored 
by  University  of  San  Francisco  Center 
for  the  Pacific  Rim  and  Its  Ricci  Insti- 
tute and  the  Commonwealth  Club  of 

Many  thanks  to  these  generous  2000 
Appeal  donors,  whose  donations  in  part 
support  the  young  scholars  program. 

Susan  Arnesen 
Helene  Baribault 
James  ].&  Caroline  Boitano 
Charles  Bowman 

Joseph  Dellert/The  Artisans  Picture  Framing 

Rene  di  Rosa 

Maria  DiDomenico 

Henry  T.  Donahoe 

Rev.  Richard  Fabian 

Margaret  Feldstein 

J.  Gordon  Frierson,  M.D. 

Sara  Garrison  and  Tim  Bever 
H.M.  Hale 
Todd  Hansen 

Charles  and  Susie  Hanson 

Mildred  and  Malcolm  Holliday 

Earl  G.  LeDet 

Tim  Madsen 

Eleanor  Matheu 

Lynn  A.  McGowin 

Marne  Good  &•  Brian  McHugh 

Thomas  & Janet  McKinley 

Charles  and  Nancy  McLaughlin 

Patricia  S.  Miller 

Dr.  & Mrs.  Nicholas  L.  Petrakis 

Richard  Raymond 

Bob  Reader 

Phyllis  Brooks  Schafer 

Marion  Schwartz 

Dr.  Amy  R.  Sims 

Dr.  Nancy  C.  Sprotte 

Barbara  Willenborg 

Kublai  Khan 

California.  FREE  and  OPEN  TO  THE 
PUBLIC.  Reservations  recommended; 
call  (415)  422-635.  Other  programs  also 
available:  ask  for  a schedule. 

* ♦ * 

The  Silkroad  Foundation  presents 
lectures,  classes  and  forums  at  Stanford 
University  Inner  Asia  Study  Center, 

« 3 » 


Herbst  Theatre,  401  Van  Ness  Street  (at  McAllister),  San  Francisco 

FRIDAY,  May  4 8:00  pm-10:I5  pm  VENICE  TO  XANADU 

5:30-7:30  PM  Speakers  Dinners  open  to  HW  Sponsors,  Patrons  and  Fellows:  see  order  form  page  7 

8:00  pm  S.  Frederick  Starr  (The  Nitze  School  Central  Asian  Institute,  )ohns  Hopkins  University) 

Rediscover  the  Silk  Road  Today 

9:15  PM  Musical  Legacies  of  the  Silk  Road 

Guest  performers  take  us  from  14th  century  Venice  to  the  inner  reaches  of  Asia.  The  exotic  instruments, 
melodies  and  costumes  rediscovered  evoke  the  wonders  Marco  Polo  and  other  early  European  trav- 
elers may  have  experienced  on  the  journey  to  China  six  hundred  years  ago. 

Music  From  Marco  Polo's  Venice  Cheryl  Ann  Fulton  (medieval  harps),  Roy  Wheldon  (vielle).  Kit  Higgin- 
son  (recorder,  psaltry),  Peter  Maund  (percussion):  medieval  estampies  and  saltarellos,  an  instrumental 
version  of  a lauda,  and  pieces  from  Francesco  Landini. 

Dance  From  Central  Asia  Laurel  Victoria  Gray  (Silk  Road  Dance  Company)  dazzles  with  traditional 
rhythms  and  movement. 

Throat  Singing  From  Tuva:  world  music  master  Paul  Pena  first  brought  this  amazing  art  to  the  world's 

attention  in  the  movie  "Genghis  Blues." 

SATURDAY,  May  5 1 0:00  am-4:00  pm 

10:00  AM  Albert  E.  Dien  (Stanford  University) 


Mummies  to  Marco  Polo:  Perspectives  on  the  Silk  Road 

1 1 : 1 0 AM  Morris  Rossabi  (Columbia  University)  Marco  Polo  and  other  Early  Travelers  to  China 

Noon-1 :30  PM  BREAK  for  lunch:  to  reserve  your  place  at  Friends  Luncheon  see  page  7 

1:30  PM  Laurel  Victoria  Gray  (Director,  Silk  Road  Dance  Company,  Washington,  DC) 

Traditional  Costume,  Music  and  Dance  from  Central  Asia 

2:40  pm  Lauren  Arnold  (independent  scholar) 

The  Exchange  of  Princely  Gifts  Across  the  Silk  Road 

3:35  PM  Panel  Discussion 

Did  Marco  Polo  really  reach  China? 



Contribute  some  of  your  holdings  to  Humanities  West.  You  get 
a tax  deduction  for  their  full  current  value  and  avoid  capital 
gains  tax  and  commission  charges!  Talk  to  your  broker  about  it! 

Traditional  Costume,  Dance  and 

Music  From  Central  Asia 
1 :30  PM  Saturday  at  Herbst  Theatre 

The  sumptuous  costuming  and  spirited  dance 
traditions  of  Silk  Road  cultures  are  a vital  part  of 
world  dance  history  and  practice.  The  visual  feast 
of  historically  accurate  costumes  displayed  in 
this  lecture/demonstration  include  Azerbaijani, 

Tadjik,  Kurdish,  and  Bukharan.  Laurel  Victoria  Gray 
(Artistic  Director,  Silk  Road  Dance  Company  Washington, 
DC)  collected  authentic  embroidery  and  weaving  on  her 
travels  to  the  East;  her  costumes  reflect  painstaking  efforts 
to  preserve  traditional  dress  in  the  face  of  rapid  change 
due  to  exposure  to  the  West.  Dancers  model  the  costumes 
and  demonstrate  dance  movements  from  each  region. 

« 4 » 


Books  in  print  on  this  list  are  available  or  can  be  ordered  from  A Clean  Well  Lighted  Place  for  Books  in  Opera  Plaza.  Other  books 
should  be  easily  found  at  a university  or  public  library.  For  a more  extensive  bibliography  visit 

Arnold,  Lauren.  Papal  Gifts  and  Princely  Treasures:  Tfie 
Transasian  Mission  to  China  and  its  Influence  on  the  Art  of 
the'^est  1250-1350.  USF-Ricci  Institute. 

Kalter,  lohannes.  The  arts  and  crafts  of  Turkestan.  New  York: 
Thames  and  Hudson,  1984,  cl983. 

Uzbekistan:  heirs  to  the  silk  road  / edited  by  lohannes  Kalter 
and  Margareta  Pavaloi;  with  contributions  by 
M.  Pavaloi ...  let  al.].  London;  New  York:  Thames 
and  Hudson,  1997. 

Harvey,  lanet.  Traditional  textiles  of  central  Asia.  New  York,  N.Y.:  Thames  and  Hudson,  1996. 

Hansen,  Henny  Harald.  Mongol  costumes.  London;  New  York:  Thames  and  Hudson;  Copenhagen:  Rhodos  International  Science 
and  Art  Publishers,  1993. 

Ikats:  woven  silks  from  Central  Asia:  the  Rau  collection.  Oxford;  New  York:  B.  Blackwell,  in  Co-operation  with  the  crafts  Council,  ( 1988) 

Gibbon,  Kate  Fitz.  Ikat:  splendid  silks  of  Central  Asia:  The  Guido  Goldman  collection  / Kate  Fitz  Gibbon  & Andrew  Hale.  Boston: 

Museum  of  Fine  Arts,  1997  (There’s  a big  expensive  version  of  this  and  a smaller,  cheaper  version  pub.  in  connection  with 
the  travelling  exhibit) 

August,  2002 

This  15-day  tour  follows  the  footsteps  of  the  great 
adventurers,  archaeologists  and  Buddhist  monks 
along  the  ancient  silk  road.  The  caravan  routes  cross 
unrelenting  deserts  with  mirages,  lush  oases,  breath- 
taking mountain  passes  and  gulches  in  remote  parts  of 
China.  View  magnificent  art  and  archaeological  wonders, 
meet  a diversity  of  tribes.  Visit  Xian;  Lanzhou;  study  the 
world's  largest  and  richest  Buddhist  art  treasury  with 
miles  of  ancient  paintings;  enter  Chinese  Turkestan-,  see 
ethnic  art  in  Urumqi. 

Escorted  by  William  D.  Y.  Wu,  Ph.D.  (Art  and  Archae- 
ology, Princeton),  who  has  escorted  groups  to  China  for 
the  Museums  of  Fine  and  Modern  Art  of  San  Francisco, 
of  San  Francisco  Mayor's  Cultural  Delegation;  and  United 
Nations  Association,  among  others. 

Presented  by  Travel  Directions.  Includes  a donation  to 
Humanities  West. 

For  more  information,  call  415/391-9700. 

Nomads  of  Eurasia  / edited  by  Vladimir  N.  Basilov  ...Los 
Angeles,  Calif.:  Natural  History  Museum  of  Los  Angeles 
County;  Seattle,  Wash.:  Distributed  by  University  of 
Washington  Press,  cl 989.  191  p. 

The  Silk  Road — An  Ancient  Road  to  Central  Asia  pub.  in  1993  by 
Three  Gorges  Publishing  House,  (published  in  China  so 
much  of  the  English  text  is  ludicrous,  but  great  pictures! 

Travels  in  the  Orient,  1«  the  Footsteps  of  Marco  Polo.  Cheneviere, 
Alain  Konecky  & Konecky,  NY,  1997. 

Sogdian  Painting  by  Guitty  Azarpay 

When  Silk  was  Gold  a museum  catalogue  pub.  by  the 
Cleveland  Museum  of  Art  and  the  Met. 

Max  Tilke  Costume  Patterns  and  Designs.  An  earlier 
edition  of  this  book  has  been  put  up  on  the  web: 

Beyond  The  Silk  Road:  Arts  of  Central  Asia  from  the 
Powerhouse  Museum  Collection  in  Sydney 

Blount,  Wilfrid.  The  Golden  Road  to  Samarkand.  The  Viking 
Press,  NY,  1973 

Marco  Polo  and  the  Discovery  of  the  Western  World,  lohn  Lamer. 

The  Book  ofSer  Marco  Polo  the  Venetian  Concerning  the  Kingdoms 
and  Marvels  of  the  East.  1926.  Ed.,  trans.,  notes  by  Colonel 
Sir  Henry  Yule,  RE  CB.  London. 

« 5 » 

Two  Notes — One  Throat 


In  the  late  '80s,  while  searching  for  a lan- 
guage program  on  shortwave  radio,  Paul 
Pena  happened  upon  the  didgeridoo-like 
wail  of  traditional  Tuvan  throat-singing. 
Infatuated,  the  blind  singer  searched  for 
seven  years  before  anyone  could  explain 
what  he'd  heard.  Once  identified,  the 
longtime  bluesman  taught  himself  the 
ancient  Asian  art  form.  The  placement 
of  one's  tongue,  sometimes  curled  at  the 
top  of  your  mouth  as  if  pronouncing  an 
'L'  creates  the  harmonics  that  enable  two 
notes  at  once.  "Your  tongue  is  just  sitting 
on  a fence  while  the  sound  moves 
around  it,"  he  explains. 

...the  Oscar-nominated  documentary 
Genghis  Blu^s... chronicled  Pena's  journey 
to  Tuva  (a  country  near  Mongolia  that's 

now  a part  of  Russia)  for  a throat-singing 
competition — Paul  Pena  won  in  two 
categories  and  earned  the  nickname 
"Earthquake"  for  his  deep,  piercing  sound. 

Tuvan  isn't  the  only  language  Paul 
Pena's  fiddled  with.  Born  in  Massachu- 
setts to  a family  with  roots  in  cape  Verde, 
Africa,  Paul's  musician  father  sent  his 
son  to  study  flamenco  guitar  in  Spain 
and  Portugal.  Over  the  years,  Pena  has 
learned  Cape  Verde  Creole,  Spanish, 
Korean,  Chinese,  japanese  and  a little 
Tuvan.  "1  wouldn't  say  1 have  a perfect 
memory"  Pena  demurs,  "but  it  was  easy 
for  me  to  remember  lyrics  and  melody." 

— excerpt  from  article  by  Neil  Gladstone  in 
New  Music  November  2000 

Paul  Pena  performs  as  part  of  “Musical 
Legacies  of  the  Silk  Road" 

Friday  evening,  May  4 at  Herhst  Theatre. 

Friends  News  About  Town: 

“Rome  in  the  Year  One”  was  a sell-out  Saturday  February  24  at  Herbst 
Theatre!  Speakers  Luncheon  and  Dinner  were  full  a month  in  advance  of 
the  program.  There  was  standing  room  only  February  8 at  the  pre-program 
"Walks  in  Rome"  at  the  Italian  Cultural  Institute.  Thank  you  for  your 
support,  and  for  filling  out  the  future  program  topic  survey.  Season  ticket 
raffle  winners  will  be  notified  in  April. 

If  you  enjoyed  the  "Rome"  program,  you  may  be  interested  in  joining  the 
California  Classical  Association,  a valuable  resource  organization  for  the  HW 
program.  Information/brochure;  California  Classical  Association,  30  Gloria 
Drive,  San  Rafael,  CA  94901 , 

Continued  from  Page  1 

the  Silk  Road  began  to  wither,  and  the 
exotic  trade  cities  along  the  path  became 
isolated  and  their  grandeur  waned. 

The  Silk  Road  was  also  a pathway  for 
new  ideas  and  religions.  It  was  an 
"ancient  information  highway."  The  perils 
of  this  long  journey  were  endured  as  a 
means  to  an  end. ..devotion  soothed  the 
travails  of  crossing  mountains  and 
desert.  Beyond  geography,  there  was 
weather  and  pirates.  Caravans  of  up 
to  1000  camels  were  thus  a safety 
measure.  Caravansarais  were  stationed 
along  the  way  at  about  25-km  intervals, 
which  would  have  been  the  daily  travel 

Items  travelling  along  this  route 
included  from  the  west  were  gold, 
textiles,  saffron,  cucumbers,  pome- 
granates, peaches,  melons,  wine  and 

colored  glass,  as  well  as  peaches  from 
Samarkand,  horses  from  Ferghana,  dwarf 
jugglers  from  Persia  and  the  magical 
"camel  bird"  (ostrich)  from  China  came 
ceramics,  cinnamon,  rhubarb,  bronze, 
paper,  printing,  gunpowder  and  of 
course,  silk. 

Marco  Polo  has  become  an  icon  for 
the  Silk  Road  because  he  was  the  first  to 
record  his  travels  to  China  and  the  court 
of  Kublai  Khan.  When  he  returned  to 
Venice,  he  was  given  the  command  of  a 
galley  dispatched  with  a Venetian  fleet  to 
repel  the  Genoese.  He  was  taken 
prisoner  and  taken  to  Genoa,  where 
he  was  able  to  dictate  the  story  of 
his  adventures  to  a fellow  prisoner, 
Rustichello,  who  was  a writer  from  Pisa. 
Marco  Polo  has  thus  eclipsed  his  uncles 
Maffeo  and  another  Marco,  and  his 
father  Niccolo.  The  elder  Polos  travelled 
to  the  East  twice  while  Marco  only  once. 

The  following  excerpt  is  from  his 
book:  "...and  at  the  end  of  your  journey 
you  arrive  at  the  very  great  and  noble 
city  of  YANIU  (Yang-chau),  which  has 
seven-and-twenty  other  wealthy  cities 
under  its  administration;  so  that  this 
Yanju  is,  you  see,  a city  of  great  impor- 
tance. It  is  the  seat  of  one  of  the  Great 
Kaan's  Twelve  Barons,  for  it  has  been 
chosen  to  be  one  of  the  Twelve  Sings.  The 
people  are  Idolaters  and  use  paper- 
money,  and  are  subject  to  the  Great 
Kaan.  And  Messer  Marco  Polo  himself,  of 
whom  this  book  speaks,  did  govern  this 
city  for  three  full  years,  by  the  order  of 
the  Great  Kaan.  The  people  live  by  trade 
and  manufactures,  for  a great  amount  of 
harness  for  knights  and  men-at-arms  is 
made  there.  And  in  this  city  and  its 
neighbourhood  a large  number  of  troops 
are  stationed  by  the  Kaan's  orders.  There 
is  no  more  to  say  about  it..." 

« 6 » 


57  Post  Street,  Suite  814 
San  Francisco,  CA  94104 

i 1 AWl  ' 

FAX  4 15/39 1-9708 

Meet  our  fascinating  lecturers 
at  the  Speakers’  Dinner  at 
STARS  Restaurant 

Sponsors,  Patrons  and  Fellows  of  Humanities 
y^est  are  invited  to  join  program  speakers 
for  the  Humanities  West  Season  Opening 
Night  dinner  on  Friday  evening.  May  4, 
at  Stars  Restaurant  in  their  private 
Banquet  Room.  This  excellent  restaurant 
is  located  at  555  Golden  Gate  Avenue, 
within  easy  walking  distance  of  Herbst 
Theatre.  We  will  convene  at  the  restau- 
rant at  5:30  p.m. 

Meet  our  Speakers  at  Indigo 
during  the  Friends'  Luncheon 

Indigo  serves  delicious  food  in  a sophis- 
ticated setting.  All  Friends  of  Humanities 
W^st  are  cordially  invited  to  join  us  on 
Saturday,  May  5,  between  the  morning 
and  afternoon  sessions  of  the  program. 
Indigo  is  at  687  McAllister  Street,  near 
Gough,  a short  block-and-a-half  behind 
Herbst  Theatre.  Guests  will  have  a 
chance  to  share  a table  and  break  bread 
with  speakers  and  fellow  Humanities 
West  supporters.  This  is  a popular 
event — R^s^rv^  early  as  space  is  limited! 


Humanities  West  offers  ticket  discounts 
to  groups  of  10  or  more,  and  other 
privileges  if  the  group  includes  a Friend 
of  Humanities  West.  Past  groups  include 
Delta  Sigma  Theta,  Harvard  Club,  and 
Fordham  Alumni  Association. 

HW  Encourages  Student  Groups: 

The  Institute  for  European  Studies,  U.C. 
Berkeley  frequently  underwrites  tickets 
so  that  participants,  usually  student 
teachers,  may  attend  HW  programs  at 
no  cost.  Other  area  colleges  and  univer- 
sities partially  underwrite  ticket  costs  for 
students  or  teachers;  and  several  Friends 
of  HW  who  are  professors  have  ordered 
tickets  for  classes  to  qualify  for  group 

If  you  are  affiliated  with  a learning 
institution  that  may  be  interested  in 
helping  subsidize  tickets  to  HW  pro- 
grams, or  want  to  order  tickets  for  a 
group  and  receive  a discount,  please  call 

Speakers'  Dinner  and  Friends  Luncheon  Reservations  Form 

for  the  Silk  Road  program 

EH  Yes,  1 am  a Sponsor,  Patron  or  Fellow  of  Humanities  West  and  would  like  to 
attend  the  Speakers'  Dinner. 

Please  reserve place(s)  in  my  name  for  dinner  Friday  night.  May  4,  at 

STARS,  555  Golden  Gate,  at  5:30  p.m.  Enclosed  is  my  check,  payable  to 
Humanities  West,  for  $55  per  person. 

EH  Yes,  1 am  a Friend  of  Humanities  West  and  would  like  to  attend  the  Friend's  Luncheon. 

Please  reserve place(s)  in  my  name  for  luncheon  at  INDIGO,  687 

McAllister  Street,  on  Saturday,  May  5th.  Enclosed  is  a check,  payable  to 
Humanities  West,  for  $45  per  person. 

A letter  of  confirmation  will  he  sent  approximately  two  weeks  prior  to  the  event. 





Please  return  this  form  to  Humanities  West,  57  Post  Street,  Suite  814,  San  Francisco, 
CA  94 1 04.  Please  make  check  payable  to  Humanities  West.  Telephone;  4 1 5/39 1 -9700 
fax;  391-9708. 


VENICE  TO  XANADU:  Marco  Polo's  Silk  Road 
May  4 and  5,  2001. 

Please  order  your  tickets  as  soon  as  possible.  Donors  will  receive  priority  until  March  28th. 

Please  include  a self-addressed,  stamped  envelope  and  mail  to  City  Box  Office  with  your  order. 
Tickets  will  be  mailed  approximately  4 weeks  prior  to  the  program. 


INDIVIDUAL  TICKETS Marco  Polo's  Silk  Road  May  4 and  5,  2001 

ALL  SEATING  Orchestra/Dress  Circle/Grand  Tier 




Quantity  Total 

Friday  & Saturday  May  4-5 




X = $ 

mail/fax  order  fee  per  ticket 

$ 3 


$ 3 

X = $ 

Friday  May  4,  8;00  pm- 10;  1 5 pm 




X = $ 

Saturday  May  5,  10:00  am-4:00  pm 




X = $ 

mail/fax  order  fee  per  ticket 




X = $ 

Student/Teacher  Discount  $5  per  ticket  (Balcony  ONLY) 


X = ($  ) 


O Enclosed  is  my  check  payable  to  CITY  BOX  OFFICE  Tickets  are  non-refundable. 
Luncheon  is  not  included. 





State  Zip 

O Please  charge  my  credit  card; 
Account  # 

O Visa  0 Mastercard 

Expires;  Mo.  Year 

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180  Redwood  St,  Suite  400,  San  Francisco,  CA  94102 
Please  enclose  a stamped,  self  addressed  envelope  Fax  orders:  415/986-041 1 

« 7 » 


October  12-13,  2001 

February  2002 


Rediscovering  the  Splendid  Realm 
May  2002 

Mos^s  by  Michelangelo 

From  the  tomb  of  the  high  priest  Userhet  at  Thebes: 
The  mother  and  the  wife  of  the  deceased 

Antoni  Gaudi:  Design  for  the  Guell  Cellars 
in  Garraf  (Barcelona) 

Look  for  your  preferred  seating  season  order  form  in  the  mail  in  May  or  June. 

57  Post  Street,  Suite  814 
San  Francisco,  CA  94104 



->  ! rU&L  OLICCL,  OUILC 

San  Francisco,  CA  94104 

PAA  415/391-9/08